Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences — Courses

(updated May 2016)

CWSEI Extension: The Harris Project, 2014-2017

Paired-teaching for faculty professional development, transfer of effective pedagogy, and research:
EOSC 220: Fall ’14. New instructor M. Smit paired with experienced instructors J. Scoates and M. Bevier. STLF: T. Holland
ENVR 200: Fall ’14. New-to-course instructor H. Zerriffi and experienced instructor T. Ivanochko. STLF: T. Holland
ENVR 300: Spr ’15. New-to-course instructor V. Christensen and experienced instructors T. Ivanochko and V. Radic. STLF: T. Holland
ATSC 303: Spr ’15. Not-yet-CWSEI instructor R. Howard and experienced instructor R. Stull. STLF: T. Holland
EOSC 112: Fall ’15. New instructor S. Waterman and experienced instructor S. Harris. STLF: T. Holland
EOSC 516: Fall ’15. New instructor C. Kosman and experienced instructor T. Holland. STLF: S. Sherman
ENVR 200: Spr ’16. New-to-course instructor T. Holland and experienced instructor S. Harris. STLF: S. Sherman
EOSC 210: Fall ’16. New-to-course instructor S. McDougall and experienced instructors S. Hollingshead and E. Eberhardt. STLF: S. Sherman

Poster, UBC Science Ed. Open House 2016:
A Paired Teaching Model for Instructor Development: Lessons from the EOAS Department

STLF help with new course transformations:
EOSC 323: Start Jan ’15. Faculty: L. Kennedy. STLF: S. Sherman
EOSC 478: Start Jan ’16. Faculty: E. Pakhomov and W. Cheung. STLF: T. Holland

STLF help revisiting earlier course transformations:
EOSC 210: Start Apr ’15. Faculty: S. Hollingshead and E. Eberhardt. STLF: S. Sherman
EOSC 221: Start Spr ’16. Faculty: M. Kopylova. STLF: S. Sherman
EOSC 270: Start Fall ’16. Faculty: M. Maldonado, STLF: S. Sherman

STLF help with new course development:
EOSC 240: Start Nov ’14. Faculty: S. Hollingshead and several other occasional geological engineering faculty. STLF: T. Holland
EOSC 113: Start May ’15. Faculty: R. Stull. STLF: S. Sherman
EOSC 471: Start Fall ’16. Faculty S. Allen. STLF: T. Holland
EOSC 448 (temporary course code): Start Fall ’16. Faculty C. Johnson. STLF: S. Sherman

EOSC 472: Nov ’14-May ’15. Faculty: K. Orians. TA: J. McAlister. Student-generated and peer-reviewed textbook

The Harris Project is funded by John and Deb Harris, the UBC Faculty of Science, and the Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences Department.

Completed Course Transformations

Course Learning goals New Assessments Improved Methods
EOSC 111: Laboratory Exploration of Planet Earth
(Sept ’07 - May ’11)

Faculty: Sara Harris
STLF: Brett Gilley

Ongoing updates to pre-post assessment, lab activities, and quizzes. Course transferred to new instructor (R. Mindel).

PDF Poster (GSA, 2011 & CWSEI EOY 2012): Invention Activities in an Introductory Lab: Minerals, Rocks, Biodiversity, & Earthquakes
Course-level goals: complete

Lab-level goals: complete
Two-stage (individual & group) quizzes

3rd draft of Pre/Post assessment complete for all topics

Post-lab surveys for each lab

End-of-term survey

Invention activities (Introduction, Minerals, Rocks, Biodiversity)

Student-derived methods (Earthquakes, Groundwater, Dinosaurs, Waves, Estuaries)
EOSC 112: The Fluid Earth: Atmosphere and Ocean
(Jan ’08 - May ’14)

Faculty: Roger Francois, Sara Harris, William Hsieh
STLF: Erin Lane

Course transferred to various new instructors (V. Radic, E. Pakhomov, D. Steyn, S. Waterman)

PDF Poster (CWSEI EOY 2009): Climate Science/Oceanography Misconceptions
Course-level goals: complete

Lecture-level goals: complete
Midterm & end-of-term surveys

Online quizzes

Validated pre-post survey

Student engagement observations

Student workloads questions

Greenhouse effect assessment
Widespread use of thought-provoking clicker questions

Relevance slide added to each lecture, relevance added throughout class.

Concept sketches and in-class worksheets

Two-stage exams

Study skills interventions
EOSC 114: The Catastrophic Earth: Natural Disasters
(Sept ’07 start)

Faculty: Roland Stull, Erik Eberhardt, Mary Lou Bevier, Stuart Sutherland, Joel Finnis, Graham Andrews
STLF: Francis Jones

New in 2010: Introduction of group exams, overseen by Brett Gilley and Roland Stull. Course transferred to various new instructors.

PDF Poster (CWSEI EOY 2013): Does collaborative testing increase students’ retention of concepts?

click here to view course materials.
Course-level goals: complete

Lecture-level goals for all lectures: complete
Midterm & end-of-term surveys

Pre-course diagnostic on basic skills

Online homework based on text readings introduced Fall 2008.

Attitudes survey

Videos about use of worksheets and 2-stage exams to support professional development of instructors
Course Management System and a custom website used extensively for content delivery, quizzing, surveying, logistics.

Use of thought-provoking clicker questions in all lectures

Pre-post question “wrappers” around video clips to focus and assess student learning from videos

Custom text introduced

Off-schedule pre-exam review/question sessions

Fall ’09: Preliminary experiment with PeerWise in one section. Not continued beyond Fall '09.

Multiple sequential instructors with one lead instructor and administrative support.

Database of questions with answering analytics prepared based on several years exams
EOSC 210: Earth Science for Engineers
(Jan ’08 start)

Faculty: Erik Eberhardt, Ulrich Mayer, Stuart Sutherland
STLF: Brett Gilley

Course transferred to various new instructors (S. Hollingshead, S. McDougall)

PDF Poster (CWSEI EOY 2010): Introduction to Earth Science for Engineers

click here to view course materials.
Course-level goals: complete

Lecture-level goals: complete

Goals for all labs:  complete

End-of-term survey

Mineral exam


Widespread use of clicker questions (4-8 in each 1.5 hour lecture), focus attention, test understanding, and drive discussion

Small group or pair discussions in most classes

Many case studies relevant to lectures

Labs redesigned with new activities linked to learning goals; labs streamlined and reworked over Summer/Fall 2012
EOSC 211: Computer Methods in Earth, Ocean & Atmosph. Sciences
(Jan ’09 start)

Faculty: Rich Pawlowicz, Catherine Johnson
STLF: Josh Caulkins

PDF Poster (CWSEI EOY '10): Transformations and results
Course-level goals: complete

Lecture-level goals: complete

Learning goals for Labs/Assignments: draft
Pre-post assessment: Administered in Teach 1 and edited for Teach 2, can be used “as is” for all future terms

Midterm and end-of-term surveys

New types of exam questions based on computer science concepts
In-class worksheets for every lecture

Pair-programming used in all labs and assignments.

Name-sticks used to call on students during lectures and in-class discussions

Post-lecture Interviews

Lab interviews
EOSC 212: Topics in the Earth & Planetary Sciences
(Jan ’08 start)

Faculty: Mark Jellinek, Michael Bostock
STLF: Francis Jones

Further refinements of generic science thinking activities and assessments were carried out in Fall ‘10, primarily by the instructor (M. Jellinek), with minor input and support from F. Jones.

PDF Poster (CWSEI EOY 2011): Promoting and Measuring General Scientific Reasoning Expertise of 2nd Year Students

click here to view course materials.
Course-level goals: complete

Focus is on science thinking skills rather than content
End-of-term survey for project evaluation

Quizzes on readings for both individual and teams, using Team Based Learning strategies.

Two projects (presentation and poster), including feedback at multiple stages of delivery.

Pre-post test related to model-based reasoning                            

Peer assessment of some homework and both projects

Regular graded abstract writing and question-posing assignments

Student participation in rubric design for reading, writing and questioning
Course management system used extensively for content delivery, quizzing, surveying, logistics.

Team Based Learning elements: permanent teams, individual/team quiz protocols & in-class team activities.

Content from Scientific American and other articles and lectures

Three modules chosen to highlight Departmental research strengths

Guest speakers for each module

Instruction and practice at developing science article reading, questioning & discussing skills

Project topics are student-determined.

Question posing, abstract writing and model based reasoning rubrics are used; in Fall 2010, the question posing aspect was more closely guided so students know whether to ask content or discussion oriented questions.

Capstone week introduced to revisit core skills and learning goals.

Two instructors with roughly half the classes attended by both
EOSC 220: Introductory Mineralogy
(Jan ’08 start)

Faculty: Stuart Mills, Mary Lou Bevier, James Scoates
STLF: Ben Kennedy, Joshua Caulkins, Erin Lane, Brett Gilley

Additional work by R. Mindel, J. Dohaney; course transferred to various instructors.

PDF Poster (CWSEI EOY 2011): Tracking Student Progress with a Mineralogy/Petrology Concept Inventory
Course-level goals: complete

Lecture-level goals: complete

Midterm and end-of-term surveys

Lab quizzes

In-class activities and discussions are part of each lecture

3x5 cards used for student responses and feedback

Labs reworked and provided more structure to students and TAs

Students create their own reference “mineral book” that can be used later for studying

2011-2013: Explicit frameworks and framework activities, and active, group based classroom strategies introduced in a big way. Also strategies for required memorizing introduced. Students now like this course.
EOSC 221: Introductory Petrology
(Sept ’07 start)

Faculty: Maya Kopylova
STLF: Brett Gilley

Course transferred early on to M. Kopylova

click here to view course materials.
Course-level goals: complete

Lecture-level goals: complete

Lab goals: complete
Pre/post assessment Labs rewritten - more structure activities linked to goals 

Small group lecture activities in each lecture

3x5 cards for ongoing assessment of students and the course

Many smaller quizzes after each module

Improved course framework (spaced lectures that do more to highlight differences rather than massed lectures, covering all of one rock type).
EOSC 222: Geological Time
(Sept ’11 start)

Paul Smith
STLF: Francis Jones
Course-level goals: first draft completed

Module-level (and lab) goals: completed
Weekly lab exercises

End of term lab exam

In-class activities (next column) serve as formative assessment opportunities.
Roughly half the content was re-worked by P. Smith and R. Mindel.

Four of ten labs were re-worked with assistance from an experienced teaching assistant.

Complete lecture observations (student engagement plus in-class observations) were conducted during Spring 2011.

Roughly 10 in-class group activities for use during class were developed during Spring 2012 teaching term.
EOSC 223: Field Techniques
(May ’09 start)

Faculty: Mary Lou Bevier
STLF: Josh Caulkins

PDFPoster (CWSEI EOY 2010): EOSC 223: Development and Implementation of an in-field assessment protocol for an introductory geologic field course
Course level goals: complete Pre-post assessments and in-field assessments Increased instructor-student interaction in the field.
EOSC 252: Intro. to Experimental Geophysics
(Sept ’09 start)

Faculty: Felix Herrmann
STLF: Francis Jones

Transformation project adjourned prior to January 2011 teaching term because the class is no longer offered.

click here to view course materials.
Course-level goals: agreed upon

Lecture-level goals: first versions
Weekly lab or homework exercises supported by TAs

In-class demonstrations assessed for “participation”

The beginnings of regular on-line self-test quizzing based on assigned readings. More to come the time the course is taught.

Extensive end of term survey about initiatives and preferences.
Enhanced context for all material by:

1. Reworked four Lab exercises

2. Re-compiled all lab exercises into a consistent format, which recognizes progression of learning from one exercise to the next.

3. Dropped two labs in favor of a new “capstone exercise” (a context rich exercise using new forms of data (borehole well logs) and lab results from earlier work).

4. Projects involving student-chosen topics, and 3-stage deliverables with TA and peer feedback.

5. Guided demonstrations introduced to four class lectures, including pre-demonstration “prediction” worksheets.
EOSC 321: Igneous Petrology
(Jan '10 start)

Faculty: Maya Kopylova
STLF: Brett Gilley
Course-level goals: complete

Lecture-level goals: complete
End-of-term survey '09 & '10

Student focus groups

Mineral quizzes, exams, group project
Student focus group

Development of several new labs

"Wake up" activities in each lecture

Distributed mineral quizzes (as opposed to one quiz in week 1).

Improved exam creation and marking/grading scheme.

Exam questions tied to learning goals.

Tectonic setting group project with group contract; in presentations of project, students required to incorporate data presented by other students and come to their own conclusions.
EOSC 322: Metamorphic Petrology
(Sept ’08 start)

Faculty: Greg Dipple
STLF: Erin Lane

PDFPoster (CWSEI EOY 2009): Do You See What I See Pre/Post Assessment
Course level goals: complete

Topic-level goals: complete
Midterm survey

Pre-reading quizzes
Rock sample and relevance in lectures

Just-in-Time-Teaching (pre-readings and online quizzes given prior to module).
EOSC 326: Earth and Life Through Time
(Jan '10 start)

Faculty: Stuart Sutherland
STLF: Francis Jones

Dec 2012: A video record of one lab and its follow up Friday activity has been developed to support professional development of instructors.

PDF Poster (AGU 2012): Fossils, Facies and Geologic Time; Active Learning Yields More Expert-Like Thinking in a Large Class for Senior Science Students
Course-level goals: complete

Module-level goals: complete (14 modules) with minor revisions in progress
Pre-requisite self-test, plus corresponding catch up material

Weekly online exercises based on assigned readings from text and elsewhere.

Regular use of clickers in class

Weekly "Active Friday" worksheets (see "Improved Methods")

Midterm and final exams plus a comprehensive end-of-term survey

New text to help remove low level content from class

Clicker questions are improving as experience is gained.

Weekly homework based on assigned readings helps keep students on task. Students do these once for grades, then they are re-opened for practice before exams.

Weekly "Active Friday" allows 1/3 of all classes to be 100% peer instruction, active learning. Work is guided, and instructor plus 2 teaching assistants circulate during work.

Two hands-on lab exercises substitute for 2 weeks of lectures. Deliverables are completed during class in groups.
EOSC 328: Field Geology
(May '10 start)

Faculty: Ken Hickey, James Scoates
STLF: Josh Caulkins

PDF Poster (CWSEI EOY 2011): Measuring Novices' Field Mapping Abilities Using an In-Class Exercise Based on Expert Task Analysis
(GSA 2010): Geologic Expertise and Field Mapping: Lessons from a 3rd Year Undergraduate Field School

Talk (GSA 2014): Mapping For Mastery: Evolution of the University of British Columbia Oliver Field School
Course-level goals: complete GPS tracking of students, in-field assessments

Pre-Post assessments

Attitudes assessment
Designed and implemented 2-day “Bootcamp” prior to traveling to field school

New mapping exercises

Peer-to-peer learning

Paced scaffolding (replaced “sink or swim” approach)
EOSC 329: Groundwater Hydrology
(Jan '10 start)

Faculty: Roger Beckie
STLF: Francis Jones (current), Josh Caulkins
Course-level goals: complete

Module-level goals: draft, need distributing among modules.

Learning goals for Labs: complete
Pre-post assessment

Clicker questions introduced into nearly all lectures. Weekly labs are taught & marked by TAs. Some lab materials were moved to course management system to improve efficiency and feedback. Weekly TA meetings with the instructor help ensure consistency in all four lab sections.

Midterm and final exams, plus a comprehensive end-of-term survey during the transformation process.  
Classroom observations and post-lecture interviews were carried out early in the transformation process

Lab exercises were substantially refined and aligned with learning goals, and expectations have been made more explicit

TAs have well developed guidance for instructing and running labs

Introduced three case studies to correspond with lab work

Some small group work during lectures

Clickers added to all lectures to help leverage Socratic teaching to advantage all students  
EOSC 331: Introduction to Mineral Deposits
(Jan '10 start)

Faculty: James Scoates, Ken Hickey
STLF: Brett Gilley

PDF Poster (CWSEI EOY 2012): 3 years of Improving Student Impressions of EOSC 331

PDF Poster (GSA 2014): Transforming An Upper-Year Mineral Deposits Class Through Interactive Engagement
Course-level goals: complete

Lecture-level goals: complete

Lab-level goals: complete
End-of-term survey

Sketches in first and last labs

Smaller quizzes replace midterms
New course frameworks developed

Reduced length of midterms, inserted framework activity after each quiz

Activities in many lectures

Rewrote all labs; labs now have "checkpoints" and are handed in at the end of lab

How does a geologist sketch activity

Poster session activity - successful model; developed poster rubric

Summative "deposits in space & time" activity

Improved final exam format

Work has continued past “official” transformation; many more activities
EOSC 332: Tectonic Evolution of North America
(Sept ’08 start)

Faculty: James Mortensen
STLF: Brett Gilley

Course Transferred to E. Barnes for one semester
Course-level goals: draft

Module-level goals:  draft

Pre/Post Assessment rewritten for Jan 2010 (validated with former students)

Midterm survey

Peer Review Essay assignment

End-of-term survey
Activities and discussions planned for some lectures

Just-in-Time-Teaching (pre-readings and online quizzes given prior to each module)
EOSC 355: The Planets
(Sept ’08 start)

Faculty: Catherine Johnson
STLF: Francis Jones

New course, taught 1st time in Spring 2009.

Fall 2010: incorporation of a second instructor supported and observed by STLF as a “transfer” and sustainability experiment.

PDF Poster (CWSEI EOY 2010): Continuing development of in-class activities in an upper level science elective
Course-level goals: complete

Module-level goals: finalized for Spring 2010 term.
Pre-course skills diagnostic and “attitudes toward planetary sciences”

Midterm survey for improving course delivery and focus

Frequent in-class quizzes

Clickers, major capstone homework exercises for each of 3 modules, in-class team-based worksheets used to set up or practices lecture content and skills.

Major project, including 3-stage deliverables, and peer assessment.

No final exam
Course management system used for content delivery, quizzing, surveying, logistics

Use of permanent teams for quizzes and in-class worksheet-based activities

Clickers used for pre-lecture prediction and mid-lecture discussions.

Online and in-class quizzes, especially to ensure accountability and assess comprehension of basic content, thus permitting higher level in-class activities & lectures.

Major poster presentation projects are a primary source of grades. Logistical strategies were adjusted to better meet student needs and improve logistical efficiency in 2013.
EOSC 372: Introductory Oceanography: Circulation and Plankton (Jan '09 start)

Faculty: Susan Allen, Kristin Orians, Maria Maldonado, Erin Lane
STLF: Erin Lane
Course-level goals: complete

Lecture-level goals: complete

Assignment learning goals: complete
Mid-term & end-of-term surveys

Daily online quizzes

Pre-requisite knowledge diagnostic quiz

Draft post test

Student workloads questions
Widespread use of thought-provoking clicker questions

Daily assignments with online quizzes

In class demonstrations and analogies developed
EOSC 373: Introductory Oceanography: Climate and Ecosystems
(Sept ’09 start)

Faculty: Maria Maldonado, Susan Allen, Roger Francois, Erin Lane
STLF:  Erin Lane
Course-level goals: complete

Lecture-level goals: complete
Mid-term survey

Draft diagnostic test

Daily online quizzes
Widespread use of thought-provoking clicker questions

Daily assignments with online quizzes
EOSC 472: Introduction to Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry
(Sep ’09 start)

Faculty: Kristin Orians
STLF: Joshua Caulkins

Course-level goals: complete, editing for new content

Lecture-level goals: draft, editing for new content
Midterm and end-of-term surveys

Reading quizzes introduced

Reworked homework sets

Term papers enhanced to be a “critical review paper” which includes greater depth of comprehension
Weekly worksheet activities

Anonymous peer-reviewed writing assignment with instructor feedback

Post-lecture student interviews

Investigating new textbook options, perhaps introducing a packet of articles

name sticks used during lectures
The following courses have undergone improvement with minor STLF support

EOSC 110: In-class worksheets and clickers. Used the Geoscience Concept Inventory to measure student learning - Faculty: M. Bevier, L. Porritt
EOSC 116: In-class worksheets and clickers. Pre-post testing. Faculty: S. Sutherland, M. Golding, J. Mortensen, S. Sherman. STLF: F. Jones
EOSC 118: Activities in the online setting (offered only as Distance Education). Faculty: D. Turner, T. Dzikowski, STLF: B. Gilley
ATSC 201: Just-in-Time Teaching and clickers - Faculty: R. Stull
EOSC 250: Active classes and Socratic lectures – Faculty: C Schoof, STLF: B. Gilley
EOSC 270: Two homework exercises that use UBC’s Beaty Museum of biodiversity for synthesis of principle concepts, early and late in the course. M. Maldonado, E. Pakhomov, F. Jones and a grad student. Results assessed, minor adjustments made, and exercises are now permanent part of the course.
EOSC 315: Clickers (one year only) - Faculty: M. Lipsen
EOSC 324: No longer offered - Faculty M. Bevier
EOSC 333: Learning goals, in class activities, field trips, labs summative activities, STLF: B. Gilley
EOSC 340: Just-in-Time Teaching, clickers, worksheets, two-stage exams - Faculty: S. Harris, P. Austin, T. Ivanochko. PDF Talk (GSA 2014): University Students’ Ideas About Climate Concepts Lack Systems Dynamics Thinking
EOSC 350: Team Based Learning - Faculty: D. Oldenburg, STLF: F. Jones
EOSC 352: Active classes and Socratic lectures – Faculty: C Schoof, STLF: B. Gilley
EOSC 420: Developing lab activities and student conference on projects. Faculty: K Russell, L. Porritt. STLF: B. Gilley
EOSC 421: Lab projects, lecture activities, and field trip Faculty: A. Caruthers, STLF: B. Gilley
EOSC 424: Learning goals, activities, labs, and projects Faculty: J. Scoates and K. Hickey, STLF: B. Gilley. PDF Talk (CWSEI EOY 2012): Transforming Teaching in Geology
EOSC 433: Scaffolding exercises for design and reporting on design projects, and a peer assessment of intermediate work. E. Eberhardt, F. Jones, and a grad student. PDF Talk (U. Calgary, 2014): Improving and Assessing Research, Design and Reporting Skills of STEM Students
EOSC 442: Lab projects. Faculty: T. Ivanochko. STLFs: F. Jones & B. Gilley
EOSC 445: Active class; project management. Faculty: S. Hollingshead. STLF: F. Jones
EOSC 450: Student projects. Faculty: C. Johnson. STLF: F. Jones
EOSC 474: Group e-posters. Faculty: E. Pakhomov. STLF: B. Gilley
EOSC 478: Eposter project and online poster session. Faculty: E. Pakhomov, STLF: B. Gilley
ENVR 200: Team projects, studying metacognition - Faculty: K. Chan, S. Harris, T. Ivanochko, M. Johnson, D. Steyn
ENVR 300: Team projects - Faculty: K. Chan, T. Ivanochko, V. Radic, D. Steyn

Related projects:
Enhancing Distance and Face-to-face Education: A two year post-CWSEI project funded by UBC’s Flexible Learning Initiative (2014-2016). This project builds directly upon gains made during the EOAS-SEI to improve courses offered in both distance education and face to face modes.

Teaching, Learning, and Assessing Scientific Reasoning Abilities in large Face-to-face and Online Courses: A two-year post-CWSEI project funded by UBC’s Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund (2016-2018). This project builds on work from EOAS-SEI and the previous Flexible Learning project.

Sara Harris's poster presentation: Engaging non-science students in large classes at the December 2008 American Geophysical Union conference in San Francisco on changes in EOSC 310 - The Earth and the Solar System.

Francis Jones' poster presentation: Improving Metacognitive Skills of 2nd year Environmental Science Students: What to Measure? at the Nov. 2008 workshop on the Role of Metacognition in Teaching Geoscience at Carleton College.

General Principles:

For each targeted course, instructors will collaborate with instructional designers, IT specialists, the EOS-SEI project committee, and CWSEI (the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative) to achieve the following goals.

  • Identify measurable learning goals appropriate for the types of students targeted by the course. Goals may address any combination of general science literacy, key disciplinary knowledge, and cognitive skills.
  • Define prerequisite knowledge for incoming students.
  • Provide opportunities for students to identify and remedy their level of preparation. This includes design and development of interactive review modules addressing key concepts and skills. Students will be able to self-assess their individual level of preparation for the course. Discussions with other departments will be included as needed.
  • Design and develop interactive learning tools to improve effectiveness of learning. Examples include research games and simulation models of different aspects of the Earth system.
  • Identify engaging, proven teaching practices that will best serve the class size and target audience while achieving learning objectives. We will use available tools and expertise on and off campus (e.g. WebCT, the Office of Learning Technology (OLT), the Centre for Teaching and Academic Growth (TAG)), innovate where appropriate, test innovations, and tap expertise within CWSEI and Skylight for ideas from the science education literature.
  • Identify commonly challenging concepts, and provide opportunities for students to grapple with them and practice the skills they are expected to master.
  • Design, test, and implement objective assessments ( formative and summative) that measure student understanding of earth, ocean, and atmospheric science concepts including broad topic areas such as “ fields”, “fluxes”, and “complex systems”.
  • Incorporate common misconceptions into assessments and structure assessments to reveal information about cognitive skill development, e.g., the ability to transfer concepts to new situations.
  • Track results over time to gauge effectiveness of new techniques.